During the last few decades, the possibility of producing electrical power from the chemical energy generated by biological catalysts has instigated remarkable advances in the field of biofuel cells. Biofuel cells use glucose primarily as a fuel and are highly relevant for powering portable, wearable and implantable electronic devices. Significant merit for this advancement is attributed to redox-active polymers that act as carriers for the enzymes while they also “wire” their active site to the electrode surface. This chapter discusses in detail (the latest) trends in the chemistry, characterization and application of redox polymers in biofuel cells. First, the fundamentals of biofuel cells are outlined, along with a detailed classification of redox polymers. Finally, a thorough investigation of how redox polymers have been integrated into biofuel cell electrodes to yield power devices with promising performances is disclosed.